1. Manco Capac
- Story: Wrote about by Pachacuti Yamqui Salcamayhua, 1620. Manco and his brothers moved to Cuzco. Bingham. photo. "Mother and son", part of "caste of serpents." No father, mother - Mama Huaco: conversed with demos of inadimate objects. Power over people of Cuzco, slept with whomever she liked. Pillco Ziza was the nurse for Manco, took him to Tampu Tocco for 2 years. Poma. Mama Huaco wore pink and tapus. Married Manco and ruled Cuzco. Poma
- Sister-wife: Mama Ocllo. photo. Poma. Mama Guaco, first to plant corn at Sausero Co2.3. Cobo Niles
- Children: Sinchi Roca, Chimbo Urma Coya, Inca Yupanqui, Pachacuti Inca - "did nothing important". Poma
- Huacas: Brothers turned to stone on their journey to Cusco. Ch1.1, Ch0.6, An7.4, Co1.6, Co2.3, Co6.1, Co6.7, Co7.5, Co7.6, Cu5.1, Cu7.1, maybe Co3.4. See Ceque Map. Bauer
- Panaca: Chima. Niles
- Symbols: Coat of Arms. panel 1: sacred bird. 2: tree with tiger being. 3: fringe of royalty. 4: 2 serpents with fringes in mouths. Poma
2. Sinchi Roca - photo
- Story: Extended inca rule to Collao and Potosi. Strong, kind, dark, brave. Poma
- Sister-wife: Chimbo Urma Coya - slender, beautiful, jealous. Held blue flowers, inquilcuna. Poma
- Children: Mama Cora Ocllo, Lloqui Yupanqui, Huari Titu Inca, Tupac Amaru Inca - brave and assisted in conquering Collasuyu. Poma
- Huacas: Co6.3 Acoyguaci - the house in which his body was kept. See Ceque map. Bauer
- Palace: Cora Cora. Later told as Huascar. Given to Almagro. Hemming
- Panaca: Raura. Niles
3. Lloque Yupanqui - photo
- Story: - Conquered Maras from Colla. Killed Colla ruler, giving Incas rule over Colla. Poma
- Sister-wife: Mama Cora Ocllo Coya - tall, mean.
- Children: Mayta Capac Inca, Chimbo Urma Mama Yachi, and Cuci Huanan Chire Inca. Poma
- Panaca: Ahuayni. Niles
- Symbol was mace and falcon in right hand, shield in left. Ugly - hooked nose, worthless. Poma
4. Mayta Capac - photo
- Story: Ugly, courageous. Conquered Charca area - Potosi silver and Carabaya gold. On death he left his wealth to idol Huanacauri. Poma
- Sister-wife: Chimbo Urma Mama Yachi - ugly, blameless reputation.
- Children: Apo Maytac Inca, Bilcac Inca, Chimbo Ocllo Mama Cava, Curi Ocllo, Capac Yupanqui Inca. Poma
- Huacas: Co8.1 Sancacancha, Co9.1 Tampucancha are associated with him. See Ceque Map. Bauer
- Panaca: Usca Mayta. Niles
5. Capac Yupanqui - photo
- Story: Average, stupid. Fed meals to idols. Discovered many mines. Poma
- Sister-wife: Chimbo Ocllo Mama Cava - beautiful, peaceful, humble. She went crazy after marriage. Next sister-wife: Curi Ocllo - esteemed.
- Children: Auqui Tupac Inca (conquered Quechua and Aymara, brought trophy heads to his father), Inca Yupanquui, Cuci Chimbo, Mama Micay Coya, Inca Roca, Inti Auqui Inca, Illapa Tupac Inca. Poma
- Palace: His palace was Hatun Cancha. Hemming
- Panaca: Apu Mayta. Niles
6. Inca Roca
- Story: Tall, strong, voice like thunder, heavy taxes. Conquered Antisuyu by becoming a tiger in battle with son Apo Camac Inca / Uturuncu Achaci (jaguar), he married a Chuncho and lived in Antisuyu, son - Old Puma Serpent Inca. Poma
- Sister-wife: Cuci Chimbo Mama Micay - pale, slim, beautiful, drummer, held flowers. Poma
- Palace: His palace included the Hatun Rumiyoc along its northern wall. Hemming
- Royal estate: Larapa. Niles
- Panaca: Vicaquirau. Niles
- Symbol: his son, Huaman Capac, in right hand, ax and shield in left. Poma
Yahar Huacac- photo
- Story: Short, broad, powerful, learned, peaceful. Lead country in fasting during plaque. Homes of sick were burned. Poma
- Presuccession name: Titu Cusi Huallpa. Niles
- Sister-wife: Ipahuaco Mama Machi Coya - sky-blue cloak, ugly, long nose. Domesticated birds. Poma
- Children: Mama Yunto Cayan Coya, Viracocha Inca, Apo Mayta Inca, Urco Inca: conquered Cuntisuyu to Arequipa, died on return to Cusco. Poma
- Panaca: Aucaylli. Niles
Viracocha Inca - photo
- Story: Handsome, white skin, bearded. Worshiped Viracocha and wanted to destroy other idols and shrines, but did not. He used sever justice, but also had many festivals. Poma
- Presuccession name: Hatun Topa Inca. Niles
- Ruled: until 1438. Rowe/Balboa
- Sister-wife: Mama Yunto Cayan Coya - timid, pretty, many problems. Children: Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, Mama Anahuarque Coya. Poma
- Children: Inca Urcon, Pachacuti.
- Huacas: Ch2.8 Guayllaurcaja, Ch8.11 Taxanamaro are associated with him. See Ceque map. Bauer
- Royal estate: Calca or Huch' uy Qozqo (Caquia Xaquixaguana) Sarmiento, Betanzos, Niles.
- Panaca: Socso. Niles
Pachacuti Inca Yapanqui- photo
- Story: Handsome, tall, glutton, warrior, short temper. Disease, drought, earthquakes were common during his reign. He built temples, started convents for virgins, created feast days for each month, severe rules. Lived to 88. Poma. “Transformer of the earth.” Created the incan system of government, all monumental building began with him. Started sun-worship. Frost. 1992, Monument built in his honor - halfway between city center and airport. Frost. Rebuilt Coricancha after his vision at the shrine, Susurpuquiu - a pacarina, spring. A god dressed in puma skins, serpents, and earspools witha headress of sun rays - see through a mirror. The god told Pachacuti of his divine kinship and predicted his victory of the Chancas. Molina, Sarmiento, Betanzos, Burger. He was the last of the Amautas. Killed in battle at La Raya. His followers fled to Tampu-tocco, "healthy place", and his body was put into a cave. Peru fell into chaos. Titi Trauman Quicho was made king. Bingham. Conquered the Vilcabamba region. MacQuarrie
- Presuccession name: Inca Yupanqui. Rowe/Balboa
- Ruled: 1438 - 1471. Rowe/Balboa. Died 1467. Betanzos. 1473. Balboa
- Primary wife: Mama Anahuarque Coya - beautiful, graceful from Choco. Children: Topa Inca and Mama Ocllo, Apo Camac Inca - strong, short tempered. Fought with father into Chile taking Chaclla, Yaucha Chinchay cocha, Tarma - killing 100,000 with only 50,000 and the plague. Poma
- Huacas: mostly in Chinchay, none in Hurin Cusco: Ch1.2, Ch1.3, Ch2.2, Ch2.3, Ch2.4, Ch2.6, Ch3.4, Ch3.6, Ch3.9, 10, Ch4.4, Ch5.1, Ch5.5, Ch7.3, 4, Ch8.1, 11, An1.9, An5.9. Bauer. Mama Anaguarque - Pachacuti's wife. Her mummy was at An6.6 Pomamarca. Ceque Cu1 was possibly named after her. Amaru Topa - powerful son of Pachacuti. Ch8.5 Chacuaytapara, An1.7 Amaromarcaguaci are associated with him. Bauer. Cori Ocllo, Amaru's wife. Her house was Ch4.3. See Ceque map. Bauer
- Royal estates: Ollantaytambo and Pisac. Sarmiento. Machu Picchu (Picchu) and Guamanmarca. Rowe. Tambo Machay. Cobo. When conquering a new area, the estate was a good example of benefits of Inca life - architecture, agriculture, terracing, conscript labor and large scale. Niles
- Cusco palace: Condorcancha, Coracora (slept here), Cusicancha (born here). Cobo. Patallacta (died here). Cobo, Betanzos, Sarmiento.
- Panaca: Iñaca. Niles
- Symbol: sling with golden stones. Poma
10. Topa Inca Yupanqui - photo
- Thupa Inca. Hyslop
- Story: Tall, handsome, warrior. He built royal highways, bridges, relay messengers and inns, magistrates, judges, annual inspectors, had a royal speaker and other governmental jobs, used quipus, focused people into villages.
Extended rule to Huanuco and additional million people. Son Urco responsible for moving huge stones from Cuzco to Huanuco. One stone became tired and refused to move anywhere (see Sacsayhuaman). Son Huanya Capac responsible for moving stones from Cuzco to Quito. Poma.
Tupac Inca called the 4 Quarters to Cuzco to request their tribute. From the Antisuyu he asked for the hard palm wood. The Antis revolted. Tupac Inca marched a powerful army in. He lost half his men to sickness, but built roads and conquered the Antis. He was unable to force them to pay tribute, they had to trade. The Incas built roads and settlements. He orders Vilcabamba city built as an administrative center. MacQuarrie.
Tupac Cauri (Pachacuti VII) started writing on leaves. He sent ambassadors to the factions to stop their evil ways and idol worship. He was rejected. The writing was seen as insulting to the gods. So it was stopped and quipus were used. Montesinos, Bingham. He started a school for use of quipu. Bingham See quipus. Was said to have gathered all Cuzco huacas and questioned them. Poma
He conquered the Chimu and removed their gold and silver-plated wood beams and had them sent to Cusco. Sarmiento, Murua. He also conquered "offshore islands" that brought back a "brass chair, black people, horse skin and jaw. Murua, Sarmiento. Topa Inca's panaca backed Huascar in the civil war. Thus Atahuallpa had all these prizes burned along with Topa Inca's body. Niles
- Ruled: 1471 - 1493. Hyslop. Rowe/Balboa. Died 1495. Betanzos
- Sister-wife: Mama Ocllo coya - pretty, short, inspiring, jealous. Poma. An3.5 Anaypampa belonged to her. See Ceque Map. Bauer. Daughters: Rava Ocllo and Curi Ocllo - Poma's mother. Poma.
- Huacas: Ch3.8 Cugiguaman, 3.10 Quinoapuquiu are associated with him. See Ceque map. Bauer. Many huacas were movable. It was said to have gathered all the huacas in Cusco and then questioned them. Poma
- Royal estates: Chinchero. Sarmiento. Amaybamba. Rostworowski
- Cusco palace: Pucamarca. Hemming, Rowe. Calispuquio. Cobo, Sarmiento
- Panaca: Capac. Niles
- Symbol: blue helmet and a shield, criss crossed tunic. Poma
Huayna Capac - photo.
- Born: 1464. Betanzos
- Story: Youngest son, chosen because his name was spoken when he entered the temple. First command was to order the death of his 2 older brothers. Wore a chessboard-like tunic. Handsome, white skinned. Tried to visit all shrines and idols, but they rejected him - he destroyed most. He suppressed a coup from his half-brother and cousin. He suppressed a second coup from provincial govenors. Conspirators were executed and their regions re-conquered. His place, estate, and construction reflected his need to show his dominance. He conquered the north with generals Challcuchima and Quizquiz and Atahuallpa Inca. He died of small pox. Poma. His succession was under dispute. Niles
- Presuccession name: Titu Cusi Huallpa. Balboa/Rowe, Sarmiento/Niles. Or Inti Cusi Guallpa. Callapina/Niles.
- Ruled: 1493 - 1525. Rowe/Balboa. 1498 - 1527/8. Betanzos. 1464 -1527 von Hagen.
- Sister-wife: First was Coya Cusirimay, premarriage name was Pillcu Huaco. Garcilaso. She died young leaving Huayna no children. Garcilaso, Sarmiento.
Children: Ninan Cuyochi, from Coya Cusirimay. Yamqui. Tito Atauchi, see in Names.
- His second sister-wife was Mama Coca. But Topa Inca's mummy did not approve and lightning struck his fortress. She was pushed off on another man and later joined the aclla huasi. The next principal wife: Cibi Chimpo Rontocay. Yamqui
Rava Ocllo (Rahua Ocllo)- beautiful with lots of hair, very powerful. Poma. Consort, who like to raise doves and garden. Niles. A Legitimate wife. Cieza. A sister-wife: Sarmiento, Garcilaso. Probably a lady of Cusco. Betanzos. Huascar had Huayna Capac's mummy marry her in order to soldify his position. Yamqui. Children: Huascar Inca, Chuquillanto. Poma (Chuqui Huipa).
Chachapoyan: Atahuallpa. Poma. From Quito. Zarate
Pallacoca: Tocto Coca. Sarmiento. Tocto Ocllo Coca. Yamqui. "lady of Cusco"and cousin. Mother of Atahuallpa. Betanzos
Caya Cuzco: Manco Inca, Ninan Cuyochi: first heir, he died with Huayna of smallpox. Poma, Hemming.
Mama Runtu: Manco Inca. She's a cousin of Huayna, daughter of Auqui Amaru Topa. Garcilaso. Called Cibi Chimpo Rontocay. Yamqui
Chuquillanto: Illescas Inca. Poma
Osica: Paullu Tupac. Poma. Anas Qoloque. Temple/Niles
Lari: Titu Atauchi. (Probably means she's from Lares) Poma.
Daughters, post-conquest names: Coya Beatriz, Leonor Coya, Ines Huaylas Nusta. Garcilaso
- Parents: Topa Inca and Mama Ocllo - only ruler to have parents of the brother-sister union. Niles
- Huacas: He is associated with Ch3.5, Ch6.5, Ch8.4, Ch9.2, Co6.7, and his brother's tomb: Ch5.8. Bauer. See Ceque map.
- Royal estates: Huayna Capac straightened the Urubamba R, employing 150,000 laborers to move rich soil to terraces and fill in swampland. Probably at Yucay - "richest of estates near Cuzco." Sarmiento, Murua, Balboa, Betanzos, Niles.
- Cusco palace: Casana. Sarmiento, Cobo, Pizarro. Pomacorco. Cobo
- Panaca: Tomebamba. Niles
- Born: 1503. Betanzos
- Story: Chullcuchima - Atahuallpa's captured general to was put to trial by Pizarro. He was blamed for the insurgency - burned alive. Prescott. Quicpai - Atahualpa's general, read the carges against Huascar and his wives and children. All were killed. Chacnac, whipping used to torture before being killed. Even unborn babies removed from mothers and hung. Chambi, battle ax used to smash heads of remaining prisoners. MacQuarrie. Quisquis - Atahualpa's head general.
- Ruled: 1532 - 1533. Niles
- Postsuccession name: Caccha Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui Inca. Caccha was a war idol. Betanzos/Niles
- Wife: Dona Angelina. Betanzos
- Panaca: none. Niles. Capac Ayllu. Betanzos, Sarmiento
- Born: 1503. Betanzos
- Story: Ugly, poor character. Poma. His father had a large cable/rope made of gold to commemorate his birth. Cobo. He governed from Xauxa, among Huancas. At Huayna Capac's death, Atahuallpa sent Huascar gifts. Huascar had the messenger insulted and killed. Atahuallpa responded with civil war. He died at Andamarca as prisoner, age 25. Tortured and insulted by Atahuallpa's generals, who then killed Huascar's family and descendants. Ruminav killed Illescas Inca in Quito, then he was killed by locals to whom he was cruel. Poma.
- Ruled: 1525 - 1532. Rowe/Balboa. 1527/8 - 1532. Niles
- Presuccession name: Topa Cusi Huallpa. Rowe/Balboa. Tito Cusi Gualpa Inti Illapa. Sarmiento. Inti Topa Cusi Huallpa Huascar Inca. Yamqui
- Sister-wife: Chuquillanto Coya - beautiful, singer, breeding birds, no children. She was able to keep Huascar happy. Died at Yucay at age 59. Poma
- Born at Huascar on L Muina. Sarmiento
- Royal estates: Huascar (Muina). Sarmiento, Murua. Calca. Betanzos, Niles.
- Cusco palace: Amarucancha. Sarmiento, Murua, Balboa. Collcampata. Sarmiento, Murua. "Huascar's fortress" probably Collcampata. Rowe.
- Panaca: Huascar. Niles
- Topa Huallpa. Niles. Also called Atabalipa, Toparpa, Tobalipa, and Topaipa. Hemming
- Story: Pizarro crowned him Sapa after garoting Atahualpa, but he got sick and died within 2 months. MacQuarrie. He was the next eldest son on Huayna Capac. He died, probably of natural causes, in Juaja on the Spaniard's march to Cuzco. Hemming
- Ruled: 1533, for 2 months. Niles
- Panaca: none. Niles
Manco Capac II
- Story: Son of Huayna Capac. Mother was Mama-Runtu. Garcilaso/MacQuarrie. Born in Collasuyu, maybe at Tiahuanco.
- Nov 1533. He met Francisco Pizarro on his march to Cuzco at Jaquijahuana. He was 17. Manco had been on the run from Atahualpa and his general, Quisquis, who controled Cuzco and murdered his entire family. Manco wanted revenge and the crown and saw Pizarro as an ally. MacQuarrie
- Pizarro named him Inca in 1534. Bingham
- 1535 Nov. He calls a secret meeting of generals and govenors to discuss rebellion. Manco fled south, he was betrayed and captured by Gonzalo. General Tiso organized the armies near Jauja. Natives stategically killed Spanish whenever they were alone. Manco was kept in chains. MacQuarrie
- 1536 Jan. Hernando returns from shipping the Cajamarca gold to Spain. He releases Manco. MacQuarrie
- 1536 Apr 18. Manco and Villac Umu leave Cuzco under the pretense of bringing gold back for Hernando. They got to Calca and began organizing the siege. At Lares, Manco meets with his generals: Tiso, Quizo Yupanqui, Illa Tupac, Puyu Vilca. MacQuarrie
-He didnt like Pizarros control, he rebeled by raising a massive army and sieging Cuzco. Almagro broke the siege in 1536. Manco retreated to Ollantaytambo. Pizarro's calvary forced another retreat, this time to Vitcos in the Vilcabamba. -- Cieza says Manco retreated with hordes of treature. Bingham believes this is highly unlikely - gold was of little use and not used in paing his servants, this was a Spanish mentality. -- From Vitcos Manco ambushed Spanish traffic and settlements. Pizarro sent Cptn Villa Diego to attack Manco. Near the Panticalla Pass the soldiers were ambushed and all but 3 died. -- Pizarro captured Mancos wives. He had her stripped, flogged, and shot to death with arrows. -- The first viceroy arrived in 1544 with New Laws about the treatment of natives - no repartimientos, native serfs and servants. Gomez Perez, an Almagro refugee with Manco was sent to Lima to meet the Viceroy and offer Manco's services. He was well received. -- During a game a disagreement broke out and in a Spanish rage, Manco was murdered. Bingham
- 1536 May and June. General Quizo succeeded in killing 200 spanish, almost all calvary. See Ayacucho and Pampas R bridge. MacQuarrie
- 1537 July. Almagro send Rodrigo Orgonez to capture/kill Manco with 300 soldiers. Orgonez surprised Manco at Chuquichaca, they routed the defense and crossed the bridge and rescued Rui Diaz and other spanish prisoners. He quickly moves on to Manco's capital, Vitcos. While the soldiers are collecting gold, Manco flees while being carried by relaying Lucana tribesmen. Orgonez captures Manco's son Titu Cusi and the mummies of Huayna Kawri, Viracocha Inca, Pachacuti, Topa Inca Yupanqui, and Huayna Capac. MacQuarrie
-1538 late. Pizarro send Cpn Illan Suarez de Carvajal to stop Manco's guerilla attacks on supply chains. He travels to Andahuaylas with 200 calvary. Cpn Villadiego was told to capture the bridge over Pampas R. He surprised the guards and learned that Manco was in Oncoy with only 80 soldiers. Villadiego decided to charge ahead despite orders and capture Manco. Manco's wife first saw the approaching spanish. Manco ordered the women to stand along the ridge with lances to look like a large warrior force. Manco and 4 nobles were followed by rest of the warriors and charged down after the spanish - of the 30 all were killed or fell from the cliff. MacQuarrie
-1539 Mar. Manco again orders a native rebellion. High priest and his troops rise up in the Cuntisuyu. The Lupacas W of Titicaca rise up. Hernando and Gonzalo and Paullu Inca lead a force. They crush the Lupacas and kill the chief. Consora along with the Pocona and Chicha tribes rise. Gonzalo led 20 calvary against them and captured Gen Tiso. Francisco led a group for 8 months and captured Villac Umu. MacQuarrie
-1539 Apr. Gonzalo leads 300 spaniards to kill Manco. Paullu Inca accompanies leading a large native group. Paullu had begun wearing spanish clothes and lived the emperors life style. The group crossed Chuquichaca bridge unopposed, passed the abandoned Vitcos. They crossed the Colpacasa Pass and down the Pampaconas R. Manco had bridges and fake path built. The spanish followed in into a narrow canyon. Boulders were dumped upon them and Antis showered them with arrows. Unfortunately it was early and many spanish were able to retreat. 36 died. Gonzalo sent Manco's half brothers Inquill and Huaspar to negotiate. Manco personally killed them. Cura Ocllo was devistated - nearly all her brothers were dead. -- At stone outcrop blocked the spanish from Vilcabamba. anco had a wall built on top. The first spanish attack was rebuffed by Manco's new gunfire. They held back the spanish for several days. Gonzalo ordereda frontal attack while sending troops up around the hillside. They were then able to fire down on Manco. He fled across the river. -- Gonzalo found Vilcabamba abandoned, he ransack the city and captured Cura Ocllo. MacQuarrie
-1539 July. Gonzalo returns to Cuzco without Manco. Francisco had Cura Ocllo tortured and killed. He had her body floated down the Vilcanota R to Manco. He had Villac Umu and Gen Tiso and other Inca prisoners burned alive. MacQuarrie
- 1544. He hosted 7 almagrists who were part ofthe Pizarro murder. During a game of horseshoes, Diego Mendez stabbed him, the others followed suit on the unarmed inca. Titu Cusi fled and hid for safety. The assassins fled but got lost and were killed. Hemming
Sister-wife: Cura-Ocllo. MacQuarrie
Ruled: 1533 - 1545. Niles
Post-succession name: Manco Inca Yupanqui.
Panaca: unknown. Niles
- Story: Manco's brother. Pizarro crowned him Sapa Inca hoping to weaken Manco. Cusi was sent to Juaja with 20 soldiers for protection. When General Quizo attacked, the entourage rose up and killed all but 2 spanish. MacQuarrie. During Manco's rebellion, Pizarro crowned Cusi sapa inca in Lima and sent him toward Cusco. At Jauja, all the spaniards were killed and Cusi fled to the other side. He later was prominent in Manco's camp. Hemming
- Born in Tiahuanco in Collasuyu. Betanzos. Or in Paullu in Urubamba Valley. Espinoza Soriano. Died 1551. Niles
- Story: crowned Inca by Almagro. He had guided Almagro on his southern trip. His father was Huayna Capac and mother Anas Collque, a non-inca from Huaylas. See Manco 1539 Mar and Apr. MacQuarrie. Paullu also lead Gonzalo to Vilcabamba. Paullu was given the Kolkampata area. von Hagen. Christianed Carlos. Poma.
- Son of Huayna Capac, half brother of Manco. Hemming
- His mother was Anas Collque, daughter of chief of Huaylas tribe. Hemming
- He was supported from the south. He joined Diego de Almagro's expedition to Chile. He became a loyal supporter. He provided Almagro intel on Manco's rebellion on their return and activily worked to keep Manco out. 1537 July. Manco fled to Vitcos. Almagro gave the title Inca to Paullu. Paullu taunted Manco via corresponse. When Almagro was defeated by Hernando Pizarro at Las Salinas, Paullu easily switched to support the Pizarros. He enjoyed his status and displayed repeated loyalty to the spanish. He was gien and owned land at Colcapampa, Pichihua,Yauri, parts of Muyna, Asihuana and Surita in the Antisuyu, Cocoacabana, and Espiscara. He was baptisped Cristobal in 1543. Hemming
- Sister-wife: Mama Tocto Ussica, baptised Catalina. His baptism cost him his leadership with the natives, all respected Manco now. Paullu was able to maintain his support of the spanish, even switch sides as needed among Pizarros, Almagists, and royalists. He went to escort Sayri Tupac out of Vilcabamba, he got sick on the journey and died soon after his return to Cusco. He was mourned by both spanish and natives. Upon his death and until his burial, his palace was surrounded by 500 inca warriors. Carlos was his heir. Hemming
- Huacas: He is associated with Ch4.4, Co2.3, Co6.7. Bauer . See Ceque map.
Alonso Atauchi - another royal incan. Poma
- Sayri Topa. Niles
- Story: child king. Viceroy had his Aunt Beatrix Coya invite Sayri to visit her in Cuzco. Sayri kept the messenger prisoner and asked that a trusted cousin, John Sierra, negotiate. Viceroy sent Fr Melchior and John Betanzos (married Atahualpa's daughter). They were detained at the Chuquichaca Bridge. Sierra was allowed to pass. Melchior and Betanzos were allowed later. Sayri rejected their offer and they were sent home via passage across Apurimac. Sierra convienced him of an interesting life in Cuzco. He traveled by litter to Lima (1558 Jan 5, Poma) to meet with Viceroy then on to Cuzco. He stayed with his aunt. Well documented by Garcilaso, who visited him. -- Sayri received the Royal Fringe, was baptised and married to royal blood and moved to Yucay. He had a daughter who later married Cpt Garcia. Sayri died in 1560. Bingham. He was poisoned by Cpt Chilche Canari, he was viewed as a traitor. Poma
- "royal tobacco". Hemming
- He was appointed sapa inca at the age of 5 by Manco before he died from his stabbing. His regent was Atoc Sopa or Pumi Sopa. Hemming
- Gasca negotiated his surrender: Sayri wanted to keep the Vilcabamba, a triangle of land where the Apurimac and Abancay rivers meet, and its royal road, and houses and property owned by his grandfather at Jaquijahuana. Paullu came to lead him out but he took sick and died, Sayri then chose to stay in Vilcabamba. Hemming
- 1557 an envoy arrives in Vilcabamba to negiotiate his return to Cuzco, his regents are indecisive. He is finally crowned with the royal fringe and makes his own decision to return with the award of comfort and wealth. He did not take the royal fringe with him. In Ayacucho he was given the royal fringe worn by Atahualpa by conquistador Miguel Astete. Hemming
- Sister-wife: In Cuzco he married his beautiful sister-wife, Cusi Huarcay. He was given dispensation from the pope. He was baptised in 1558. Hemming
- He fell ill but recovered and lived in Yucay valley. He died here suddenly in 1561. The Canari chief of Yucay was blamed for his death, but later released. Maybe killed to make way for Titu Cusi. Or maybe killed by Carlos Inca, Puallu's jealous son. Manco and Puallu's families were still rivals. Hemming
- Ruled: 1545 - 1558. Niles
- Panaca: none. Niles
- Titu Cusi Yupanqui. Niles
- Story: Illegitimate son of Manco, mother not royal. Bingham. His name magnanimous and fortunate. Hemming
- When Manco was chased out of Vitcos, Titu was captured and given to Pedro Onate. He was treated kindly. Hemming
- In 1539 in was snuck out and returned to his father in Vilcabamba. Hemming
- Diego Rodriguez de Figueroa was the first to visit Titu in Vitcos. Romero came and received permission to prospect for gold and was successful. Fearing more Spaniards, Titu had him killed. Bingham
- 1557. He became sapa inca of Vilcabamba when his brother Sayri left. He was not a legitimate son of Manco, but that was of little importance. Hemming
- Titu was a shrewd negiotiator. He removed reasons for spanish imvasion - he ceased raids and became christian and allowed missionaries. He would leave Vilcabamba though. He met with the lawyer, Juan Matienzo, at the Cuquichaca in June 1565. He stated the ill treatments of himself and his father by the spanish. He said he and his son would move to Cuzco, a spanish corregidor would control Vilcabamba, and his son would marry the hieress of Sayri, and Titu would be given Cachana and Canora as encomiendas. Hemming
- 1568. Titu learns from Rodriguez and Martin Pando about Christianity. He invites þe prior of the augustians to Huarancalla to baptise him. Friar Marcos Garcia stays behind. Hemming
-1570. Francisco de Toledo arrived as new Viceroy. He wanted the Incas subjegated. He sent Tilano de Anaya to persuade Titu to move to Cuzco. Bingham
-1571 May. Titu came to visit a sacred shrine at Puquiura to honor his father's death. Titu was sick, the next day he died at the age 41. MacQuarrie. (Fr Diego was blamed for his inability to heal him. Bingham.) Fr Ortiz was blamed for his death. He was beaten then ordered to say Mass and raise Titu from the dead. They tied a rope through his jaw and dragged him for 2 days to Vilcabamba. MacQuarrie
- Ruled: 1558 - 1571. Niles
- Panaca: none. Niles
- Topa Amaro. Niles. Story: Brother of Titu Cusi. He had been responsible for caring for Manco's body. He was a fierce supporter of the inca religion. He had all symbols christianity destroyed in Vilcabamba. Hemming
- Untrained in war when Tilano arrived at Chuquichaca bridge. He was killed. Toledo took the occasion to make war on Tupac. He sent one group via Limatambo and Curahuasi to stop a flee across the Apurimac R. General Martin Hurtado and Cpn Garcia left via Chuquichaca. The crossed the pass and bridge unchallenged. Bingham. Generals: Curi Paucar and Manacutuna. Poma
-1571 May. Tupac became the new ruler at Titu's death. Fr Ortiz was dragged for 2 days to Vilcabamba . But Tupac refused to see him. He was killed at Marcanay. MacQuarrie
-1571 July. Tupac Amaru allowed noone to enter the Vilcabamba, killing all envoys, including the personal friend of the Viceroy Toledo. MacQuarrie
-1572 May. Toledo forces included 250 spanish and 2000 natives, sent through Chuquichaca. Another force of 70 spanish approached from Apurimac R. MacQuarrie
-1572 Jun 24. Arbieto finds Vilcabamba burned and abandoned. Tupac had hoped the lack of food would force the spanish to return home. He fled down the Cosireni R. Cpn Martin Garcia led one of the groups in search. He was captured with his pregnant wife in the Momori valley, 200mi from Vilcabamba. MacQuarrie
-1572 Sep 21. Arbieto returns to Cuzco with Tupac Amaru. MacQuarrie
-1572 Sep 24. Tupac is led to the main square for his execution. The entire city and hillsides were full with people to see the last Inca. A great wail rose among the crowd. Tupac raised his hand then lowered it - all become silent. MacQuarrie
- Ruled: 1545 - 1572. Niles
- Panaca: none. Niles
Tupac Amaru II - 1780 revolutionary. Led an indigenous revolt. Spanish executed his family then after failed draw and quarter. Adams
Alexander VI, Pope - Declared the western americas available to the spanish provided they converted the locals to christianity. Hemming
Almagro, Diego de - Short, "with ugly features, but of great courage and endurance." Cieza de Leon. Lived with Marca Chimbo, Manco's sister and daughter of Huayna Capac. She was the most powerful woman in Peru. Las Salinas - 1538 Apr 26. Hernando Pizarro led a battle against Almagro in an attempt to recaptuer Cusco. Orgonez fought bravely, but he was captured and beheaded and placed on display. Almagro was also captured and garrotted. Hemming
Alonso Titu Atauchi - Grandson of Huayna Capac. His father was a general of Huascar and died with him at Andamarca. Hemming. The only remaining ayllu member of Huascar. He fought with the royalists to defeat Fernando Giron's rebellion in 1554. He was rewarded with a title, coat of arms, royal fringe,carry the rod of justice, and give the sign of immunity. Toledo issued a sham trial against Alnso and Carlos, they were exiled to Mexico. A commission overturned the ruling and they returned to Cuzco. Alonso died at Potosi in 1610. Hemming
Amaro Topa Inca. Eldest son of Pachacuti. He is named heir, marries a full sister, but does not become king. Sarmiento. This is different than Betanzos history. The Amaro family owned a lot of land around Cusco and are associated with many of the huacas. Niles. Capac Ayllu - panaca of Amaro Topa Inca, son of Pachacuti. This family sided with Huascar in the civil war and killed by Atahuallpa. The family's history was taken by the Yamqui Yupanqui family. Niles
Atoc-Sopa - powerful brother of Manco, who challenged his authority in Cuzco. Manco had him killed. Hemming
Benalcazar, Sebastian de - Conquistador. One of three lieutenants to Francisco Pizarro. Hemming
Betanzos, Juan de - Chronicler and wrote of native customs. He lived in Carmenca Cuzco. He married Angelina Anas Yupanqui, a mistress of Francisco and promised to Atahualpa (Cusirimay Ocllo, daughter of Yamqui Yupanqui, jr. Niles). He raised Francisco's son, Francisco. He was sent by Polo de Ondegando to Titu Cusi in Vilcabamba to ensure him that the Spanish had nothing to do with Sayri's death. He wrote the first quechua-spanish dictionary which inclided many Inca legends. Hemming. Interviewing Angelina's family he collected more details of Huayna Capac and Atahuallpa than others. But the point of view is only from her family - a partisan history. Sarmiento talks about Amaro Topa Inca and not Yamqui. Yamqui's family survived the situation, said they helped in backing Atahuallpa and probably took the Amaro family history. Sayri Topa was promised the Yucay estate to entice him out of Vilcabamba. Betanzos sued that the property belonged to his wife. Niles
Bueno, Martin - conquistador. With Pedro Martin, the first to see Cuzco and stripped it of its gold plates. Hemming
Candia, Pedro de - Conquistador. Captian. Greek, in charge of the artillery. He fired the cannon as a signal to charge Atahualpa. He became fabulously rich. He financed and led an expedition into the jungles east of cusco in search of El Dorado. It took months, he lost half his men, found nothing. Hemming
Capac Ayllu - panaca of Amaro Topa Inca. See Amaro Topa Inca for more.
Carlos Inca - Son of Paullu. He was the only native to live richly and be educated as other spanish youth. He was made an alderman of Cuzco. He was allowed to marry a spanish noble. Soon after Tupac's execution, Toledo had Carlos arrested. He was erroneous charged with helping Tupac. 1573 He and the sons of Tupac and Titu were exiled to Mexico. 1574 King Philip created a commission to review Carlos' trial. They overturned his exile and he returned to Cuzco. Hemming
Casas, Bartolome de las - 1539 Reformer who argued against the the encomienda system and very poor treatment of natives. It worked, the king order a new set of governance, New Laws in 1542. For the next several years he published many works influencing laws and the crowns opinion on conquests, and treatment of natives. Hemming
Chalcuchima - one of Atahualpa's three generals, the supreme commander and in charge of holding central peru following the civil war.After looting Pachacamac, Hernando Pizarro meet with Chalcuchima at Juaja. Hernando persuaded Chalcuchima to join him at returning to Cajamarca. He was soon under Spanish control. Hemming
Chilche, Franisco - the local cacique of a group of mitimaes at Yucay. Niles. 1548, Sayri Tupac lived here after his surrender. He was shortly poisoned by Cañari cheif Francisco Chilche. Thomson. Chilche was married to the Inca princess, Dona Ines Coya. As cacique, he claimed most of the Yucay estate, many mamaconas, the entire Chicon canyon. Niles
Cieza de Leon, Pedro - chronicler. He was a boy when Hernando Pizarro returned to Spain with the Kings first share of gold, many of the golden objects were put on display. Hemming
Cusi Yupanqui - Huayna Capac gave him the important role of caring for the statue, Caccha Inca. He's the son of Yamqui Yupanqui, jr. He places the borla upon Atahuallpa. He was Atahuallpa's "trusted assistant" and oversaw the killing of all loyal to Huascar. He took Atahuallpa's body back to Quito. He's killed by the jealous Ruminahui. Betanzos / Niles
Cusirimay Ocllo - Daughter of Yampqui Yupanqui, jr. She was promised in marriage to Atahuallpa. But she was later married to Juan Betanzos and christianed Dona Angelina. Betanzos
Garcia, Friar Marcos - He accompanies the Augustine prior to Huarancalla to baptise Titu Cusi. He stays to preach. He also traveled to Carco and Huamanga area to preach. Garcia was very strict and complained vocally to locals and Titu himself about polygamy, drunkeness, and idolatry. He built a church at Puquiura. He was later joined by the more friendly Friar Diego Ortiz. Hemming
Garcia de Loyola, Martin- A knight of Calatrava. He was a hidalgo and great nephew of St Ignatius. He came to Peru with Viceroy Toledo. He was the one to capture Tupac Amaru. Viceroy Toledo gave him Beatriz as a wife, the heiress of Sayri Tupac's massive fortune. The engagement lasted until 1589. There was a decade long legal battle over the marriage. He became governor of Potosi, La Plata, Ayacucho, Huancavelica, and Chile, and the general of a fleet in search for Thomas Cavedish. He tried fighting the Araucanians. But his entire force was whiped out. His skull was used as a drinking vessel for many years. Hemming
Giron, Fernando Hernandez - He organized a rebellion in Cuzco, he was followed in Ayacucho and Arequipa. They fought against royal decrees protecting welfare of natives. He was defeated at Pucara in Oct 1554. Hemming
Huayllas - surname given to Incan royal family by the spanairds. Hemming
Huayllas Nusta, Beatriz - daughter of Huayna Capac. 1555, the most important native in Cuzco. Originally the mistress of Mancio Sierra fe Leguizamo, then married to Pedro de Bustinza who was executed for his support of Gonzalo. Then she was married to the barber, Diego Hernandez. The viceroy Canete sent her to negotiate Saryi's surrender. Hemming
Inca Urcon - Eldest son of Viracocha Inca. Some histories call him illegitimate and a coward. Thus Pachacuti was in position of power. It's unclear about the details, but Viracocha Inca and Inca Urcon were usurped by Pachacuti. Ceiza claims he actually ruled for a few days. Niles
Figuero, Diego Rodriguez de - Appointed the corregidor of Vilcabamba during the Acobamba treaty of 1566 which was to bring Titu Cusi to Cuzco. He never went. Hemming
Maldonado, Diego - conquistador. Married Lucia Clara Coya, a sister-wife of Atahualpa. She originally wanted to be buried with him. He was given the area of Andhuaylas. He wanted to explore the south pacific - to finance it, he forced his natives to double their tribute. Hemming
Martin, Don - native, given to Pizarro. in 1528. He went to Spain and returned fluent in spanish. He was given a horse and large encomienda near Lima. He rode with the calvary against Atahualpa and Almagro. He became a christian and married a spanish lady. Gasca sent him along with an envoy to talk Sayri Tupac out of Vilcabamba. Gasca confiscated his encomienda, he traveled to spain to protest, he died there. Hemming
Martin, Pedro - conquistador. With Martin Bueno, the first to see Cuzco and stripped it of its gold plates. Hemming
Matienzo, Juan de - The premier lawyer of Peru. He met Titu Cusi at Chuquichaca in June 1565. Each were fully armed and met privately with hostages held by each group. Hemming
Mendez, Diego - Fled with Almagro jr. He stopped in Cuzco to see his mistress. He was captured and imprisoned. He soon escaped and joined Manco in Vitcos. A half brother of Rodrigo Orgonez. 1542. He and other reneges taught Manco's men spanish fighting techniques. He was the primary advisor to Manco about requesting a pardon for Viceroy Nunez Vela. He was the first to stab the unarmed Manco, 6 others joined in. The assassins fled but got lost. They were all killed. Hemming
Nunez Vela, Blasco - first viceroy of Peru, 1544. He was sent to enforce the New Laws protecting natives. Manco and his almagro fugitives sent him a letter requesting a pardon. Hemming
Onate, Pedro de - Rodrigo Orgonez captured Manco's son, Titu Cusi, whom he entrusted Pedro de Onate to look after. Manco reportably thanked him and gave him some treasures. Onate fought with Almagro jr against Vaca de Castro at Chupas, Ayacucho. He lost and was executed as a rebel. Hemming
Ondegardo, Juan Polo de - 1510-1575. Lawyer, corregidor at Cuzco and Potosi. In Cuzco he interviewed remaining Inca royalty. Finds led to finding royal mummies very interested in ceques, huacas and inca religion. He drew a map of the ceques. Every town had a ceque system. Ondegardo. Ondegardo is the most probable author of the original ceque manuscript, which was copied for Cobo's book. Bauer. See Ceque Map. 1559 he began research into inca beliefs. He found the huauque of Manco Inca I, a richly dressed stone. He found the mummies of Pachacuti, Huayna Capac, and Mama Ocllo. They were sent to Viceroy Canete in Lima. Hemming
Orgonez, Rodrigo - Diego de Almagro's right hand man. He won over Alonso de Alavadro and Pizarro forces at Abancay. On his return t Cusco, he was immediately sent after Manco's retreat to Vitcos. He easily made it. Manco fled again. Orgonez was busy collecting spoils - several ancestor mummies, the stone idol from Huanacauri, and a "golden image of the sun." He also forced 20,000 natives to leave and return to their farms. He also captured Manco's son, Titu Cusi, whom he entrusted Pedro de Onate to look after. He had to quickly return to Cusco in July 1537 because of dissention among the spanish. Las Salinas - 1538 Apr 26. Hernando Pizarro led a battle against Almagro in an attempt to recaptuer Cusco. Orgonez fought bravely, but he was captured and be-headed and placed on display. Almagro was also captured and garrotted. Hemming. photo
Ortiz, Friar Diego - He soon joined Friar Marcos Garcia in Vilcabamba after Titu Cusi's baptism. He was friendlier and liked by Titu. He built a church at Huarancalla. He became popular with the locals because of his medical abilities. 1571 Titu Cusi died, Ortiz was blamed for not saving him. He was extensively tortured then marched to Vilcabamba for trial with Tupac Amaru. Near Vilcabamba Tupac refused to see Ortiz. He was killed. All christian symbols and churches in Vilcabamba were destroyed. Hemming
Pando, Martin - He was sent with Bentanzos by Polo de Ondegando to inform Titu Cusi of Sayri's death. He stayed with Titu as his advisor for the rest of his life and was crucial in the next several years in Titu's shrewd management of the spanish. He wrote Titu's dictation for Relation. Hemming
Pizarro, Francisco - lived with Quispe Cusi (Ines Huayllas Nusta), Huayna Capac's daughter. Together they had a daughter, Francisca. She married Francisco de Ampuero. (Ampuero is still a powerful family in Peru.) In 1539, he was given þe additional title of Marquis. He delayed his selection of territority. Hemming
Pizarro, Gonzalo - Younger brother of Francisco. He led the rebellion against the crown's New Laws. 1546 Jan he marched on and won the battle against the Viceroy Blasco Vela. Took Manco's sister-coya for himself. Manco first tried to trick him by presenting Cura Ocllo's woman, Inguill, as herself. The deception did not work. Hemming
Pizarro, Hernando - Conquistador. One of three lieutenants to Francisco Pizarro. He was sent with Hernando de Soto to loot Pachamac. Las Salinas - 1538 Apr 26. Hernando Pizarro led a battle against Almagro in an attempt to recaputer Cusco. Orgonez fought bravely, but he was captured and be-headed and placed on display. Almagro was also captured and garrotted. In 1539 hr had to return to Spain to provide explaination about his execution of Almagro. He was then imprisoned. Francisco's children returned to spain, Hernando married his niece in order to gain her imheirentnce. He was imprisoned in a state of luxury. He was released by Phillip II in 1561. He moved to Trujillo and built a palace on the main square. Hemming
Pizarro, Juan - Younger brother of Francisco. He treated Manco very poorly during his imprisonment, which inspired Manco's rebellion. During the siege he was struck in jaw and unable to wear his helmet. He was then struck in his head during the storming of Sacsahuaman. He died that night at the age of 25, considered very brave. Hemming
Pizarro, Pedro - Youngest brother of Francisco. Originally too young to fight. He went on to chronicle the conquest. Hemming
Ponce de Leon, Hernan - He was in charge of a third of the calvary during the great siege. Hemming
Quisquis - one of Atahualpa's three generals, in charge of conquering Cuzco. He succeeded, captured Huascar, and began exterminating the remainder of Huascar's family. Hemming
Quizo Yupanqui - one of Manco's generals during the great rebellion. He successfully whipped out nearly all spanish between Cusco and Lima. He would allow the spanish to enter a narrow valley, then close the entrance and exit with masses of indians. Then they would roll boulders down upon them. In Jauja, the surprised the lazy spanish and killed them all. In total they killed over 160 well armed spanish foot and calvary. Of the 200 soldiers sent to rescue Cusco, only 4 survived. He assembled a massive forced for a final assault on the spanish at Lima. He and his leaders lead the assault. They were the first to die at the calvary's charge. With the leadership destroyed the army collapsed. Hemming
Romero - 1570 he was granted permission to look for gold in Vilcabamba. He found a rich vein. He took some to Titu and asked for a license to continue. Titu had him killed for fear of a spanish gold rush. Hemming
Ruminaci - one of Atahualpa's three generals, in charge of Quito region. Hemming
Ruquicapana - from Hatun Colla. He declared himself son of the sun and rebelled against Pachacuti. Betanzos / Niles
Sahuaraura - Surname given to the family united by Paullu and Titu Atauchi. Hemming
Sanchez de Badajoz, Hernan - during the attack on Sacsahuaman he used a ladder to scale the terraces under heavy stone assault. He entered a building through the the window the climbing a hanging rope he made his way to the top. Hemming
Sarmiento de Gambo, Pedro - Captain under Viceroy Toledo. He wrote from the many interviews conducted under Toledo. He also used writings from Cieza de Leon and Juan Betanzos. He completed his work in 1572. It was written in support of spanish rule over the incas. Hemming. His goal was to show the incas as "brutal latecomers with only two generations of rule." Though, he was quite thorough in collection of information. He would interview nobility from opposite families and try to determine the correct history. Niles
Sierra de Leguizamo, Mancio - He gambled away the effigy of the sun before dawn. He was also the first to scale Sacsahuaman during the siege. Probably performed neither. His will says he was not married to Beatriz and he regretted the conquest and actions of the spanish afterward. He accompanied Viceroy Toledo's invasion of Vilcabamba as a consultant. Hemming
Sinchi Roca - half brother of Huayna Capac. He managed Cusco when Huayna was gone. Sarmiento, Murua, Balboa, Cobo. He designed and managed construction of Huayna's estate at Yucay. Sarmiento / Niles
Soto, Hernado de - Conquistador. One of three lieutenants to Francisco Pizarro. The first to meet Atahualpa. He invited him the plaza at Cajamarca. After an intimidating horse maneuvers, many incas showed fear. Atahualpa had them killed for their cowardice. Soto was sent to Pachamac, near Lima to loot and overthrow the temple. Soto returned to Spain in July 1535 and got permission to explore Florida. He died near the Mississippi. He lived with Leonor Curicuillor, she was the famous daughter of Huascar and Curicuillor. She had fallen in love with Atahualpa's general, Quilaco. Soto sponsored their baptisms. Miguel Cabello de Balboa, Hemming. photo
Tito Atauchi - Son of Huayna Capac. He remained in Cusco to help Huascar while Huayna was in Quito. Sarmiento. He was probably the father of Alonso Tito Atauchi, the "mummy custodian" of Huayna Capac. Levillier / Niles
Tito Atauchi, Alonso - the "mummy custodian" of Huayna Capac. Levillier / Niles
Toledo, Viceroy Francisco de - Entered Cuzco in 1571, the first one. A great presentation from the many native groups welcomed him. While he was in Cuzco, he stayed with Diego de Silva y Guzman, the finest house in Cuzco. Hemming. photo
Vaca de Castro - Defeated Almagro Jr at Chupas, Ayacucho and executed him. 1542 negotiated a surrender by Manco. Nothing came of it. He was Paullu's sponsor for his baptism. Viceroy Nunez Vela captured and imprisoned him. Hemming
Valverde, Fr Vicente - Dominican. Priest to meet with Atahualpa, when Atahualpa reject the Bible, Valverde called for the conquistadors to strike. Was named the bishop of Cuzco. He died in 1541. He became a supporter of just treatment of the natives. Hemming
Villac Umu - high priest of incas during the time Of the conquest. He was related to Huayna Capac. A very high position "equal in debate to the Inca." He was captured during the second rebellion inþe Condesuyo. Francisco sent an envoy to encourage Manco's surrender. Manco killed them all. In retaliation Francisco had many natives killed. Villac Umu was burned. Hemming
Yamqui Yupanqui (sr) - He helped in conquering Amaybamba. Murua. Eldest son of Pachacuti and chosen as successor. But he's old and cedes the position to Topa Inca and places the borla upon him. At Topa Inca's death, he places the borla upon Yamqui's statue. Father of Yamqui Yupanqui, jr. Probably a part of the Inaca panaca. Betanzos.
Yamqui Yupanqui (jr) - Son of Yamqui Yupanqui. He is given the job or overseeing the royal herds, later given to Huayna Capac. His children are Cusi Yupanqui and Cusirimay Ocllo. Betanzos
Yupanqui - surname given to Incan royal family by the spanairds. Hemming
More information on the bibliography is available on the previous page.
Prescott, William. The History of the Conquest of Peru. He created the first compresive history of the fall of the Incas.
Von Hagen, Victor. Highway of the Sun. Duell, Sloan and Pierce, NewYork: 1955.
Von Hagen, Victor. Realm of the Incas. New American Library, New York: 1957.