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Vilcabamba Maps

This website is dedicated to study of the Vilcabamba region of Peru - a place of exciting Incan discovery.

In reading books about this area, I found it difficult to remember what areas are where and what those areas are famous for. So I decided to create an interactive map. Some locations were on some maps but not on others. So finding a certain location meant jumping from book to book and going to the library. So I decided to make it easier and more efficient.

This is a great map for following along in your book or study of the Incas.


This website is for educational use only and not intended to take advantage of current excellent publications. I update the bibliography regularly. I have found it very difficult to find books and maps - if you've found a handy resource or tips or have photos of places that I dont, please let me know at andy@ .

Books and maps used (colors indicate which map they are associated with) :

Adams, Mark. Turn Right at Machu Picchu: Rediscovering the Lost City One Step at a Time. Dutton 2011.With explorer John Leivers

Albornoz. Studied the ceques of Cusco. He has an appendix in Bauer's Sacred Landscape.

Alconini, Sonia. “The Southeastern Inka Frontier against the Chiriguanos: Structure and Dynamics of the Inka Imperial Borderlands.” Latin America Antiquity. Vol 15, No 4, Dec 2004. Pp 389-418. Cambridge University Press. Jstor link

Allen, Catherine. "The Whole World is Watching: New Persepctives on Andean Animism." The Archaeology of Wak'as. Explorations of the Sacred in Pre-Columbian Andes. ed: Tamara Bray. University Press of Colorado, Boulder. 2015. Research Gate.

Alva, Walter & Maria Longhena. The Incas and other Ancient Andean Civilizations. White Star, Barnes & Noble, 2007. Tons of photos and illustrations and lots of information about other Peruvian cultutes.

Arcana Factor. A great collection of photos of the Cusco area. Link.

Arkush, Elizabeth. "Inca Ceremonial Sites in the Southwest Titicaca Basin." In Advances in the Archaeology of the Titicaca Basin, eds. C. Stanish, A. Cohen, & M. Aldenderfer: 209-242.  Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press. 2005. Link

Barnes, Monica. David Flemming. "Charles-Marie de La Condamine's Report on Ingapirca and the Development of Scientific Field Work in the Andies, 17-35-1744." Andean Past. Volume 2, Article 10. 1989. Link

Bauer, Brian. "Archaeological Investigations at Maukallaqta and Puma Orco, Department of Cuzco, Peru." Nawpa Pacha: Journal of Andean Archaeology. No 25/17. (1987-1989, pp 207-250. Link.

Bauer, Brian. "Pacariqtambo and the Mythical Origins of the Inca." Latin American Atiquity. Vol 2, No. 1 (Mar 1991), pp 7-26. Link.

Bauer, Brian. The Sacred Landscape of the Incas. The Cusco Ceque System. University of Texas Press, 1998. See Ceque Map.

Bingham, Hiram. National Geographic, 1912. The man who found Machu Pichu and nearly every site in the Vilcabamba.

Bingham, Hiram. Lost City of the Incas. Librerias ABC, Lima , Peru 1948.

Bingham, Hiram. Inca Land: Exploration in the Highlands of Peru . Houghton Mifflin Co, Boston: 1922. Most of the Bingham photos are from this book.

Bingham, Hiram. "The Ruins of Choquequirau." American Anthropologist. New Series, Vol 12, No 4 (Oct - Dec 1910), pp 505 - 525. JSTOR article.

Bingham, Hiram. Vitcos. American Antiquarian Society. Worchester, MA: 1912.

Bray, Tamara. "Water, Ritual, and Power in the Inca Empire." Latin American Antiquity, Jun 2013, Vol 24, No 2, pp164 - 190. Cambridge University Press. JSTOR link.

Burger, Richard. “What kind of hallucinogenic snuff was used at Chavin de Huantar? An iconographic identification.” Nawpa Pacha: Journal of Andean Archaeology. Vol 31. No 2. Dec 2011, pp 123 - 140. Taylor & Francis. Jstor link.

Burger, Richard and Salazar, Lucy. Machu Picchu: Unveiling the Mystery of the Incas. Yale Press: 2004.

Bryan, Adrienne. Politics of a Sacred Landscape: An Archaeological Study of the Inca Ceque System in the Cuenca de Inkilltambo. UCLA Thesis, 2014. Escholarship link.

Christie, Jessica Joyce. "Inca Copacabana. A Reconstructionfrom the Perspective of the Carved Rocks." Anthropos. 2006, pp 179-201. JSTOR article.

Christie, Jessica Joyce. "Inka Control of Time."

Christie, Jessica Joyce. "Inka Iconographic Rocks." American Indian Rock Art. Vol 40. 2013.

Christie, Jessica Joyce. Memory Landscapes of the Inka Carved Outcrops, from Past to Present. Rowman & Littlefield. 2015

Christie, Jessica Joyce. "Pachacuti's Stone Ideology: The role of the Inca Rock Carving with Imperial Ritual, State Expansion, and Identity." Abstract submission.

Christie, Jessica Joyce. "The Inca Road System and the stone huacas: investigation of multi-agent landscapes on the periphery of the Empire." Qhapaq Nan 5. Link.

Cobo, Bernabe. History of the New World, 1653. Jesuit scholar. Inca culture and religion, including ceques. List of ceques, locations, and offerings. Included in Bauer's Sacred Landscape. See Ceque Map.

Cowen, Ron. "Peru's Sunny View: Solar Observatory Dates Back 2300 Years." Science News, Vol 171, No 18 (May 5, 2007), pp280-281. JSTOR article. Article about Chankillo's 13 Towers.

Cuadernos del Qhapaq Nan. Año 5, 2017. Peru, Ministerio de Cultura. Editors: Giancarlo Marcone Flores, Sergio Barraza Lescano.

Dean, Carolyn. A Culture of Stone. Inka Perspectives on Rock. Duke University Press. 2010

Dean, Carolyn. "The Inka Married the Earth: Integrated Outcrops and the Making of Place." The Art Bulletin. Sep 2007, pp 502 - 518. JSTOR link.

Delgado Gonzalez, Carlos. "The Amaru-Illapa Illa from T'oqocachi in Cusco." Andean Past. Volume 13, Article 10. May 1, 2020. Link

Earle, Julia, Jhon Cruz Quiñones. "Building Power: On the Organization of Construction Technologies in the Sacred Valley, Peru." Institue of Andean Studies, 2021 Presentation.

Fejos, Paul. Explorations of the Cordillera Vilcabamba. The Viking Foundation, NY, NY. 1944. Paul thoroughly explored the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu. This very rare book contains many excellent photos, illustrations, and maps.

Frost, Peter. Exploring Cusco. Nuevas Imagenes. 1999 (originally 1979). The travel guide to Cusco area. Published in Peru - thus much cheaper to buy there.

Gasparini, Graziasno. Luise Margolies. Inca Architecture. Indiana University Press: 1980.

Ghezzi, Ivan and Clive Ruggles. "Chankillo: A 2300-Year-Old Solar Observatory in Coastal Peru." Science, New Series, Vol 315, No 5816 (Mar 2, 2007), pp 1239-1243. JSTOR article. Chankillo's 13 Towers.

Guchte, Maarten van. Carving the World. UMI Dissertation Services. University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana.

Gullberg, Steven. The Cosmology of Inca Huacas. James Cook University. PhD Thesis. 2009. Link.

Gullberg, Steven and J McKim Malville. "The River Intihuatana: Huaca Sanctuary on the Urubamba." Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, Vol 3, No 3, pp 179-187. 2014

Hemming, John. The Conquest of the Incas. Harcourt brace job. 1970

Hemmings, John & Ranney, Edward. Monuments of the Incas. Little, Brown, and Company, Boston: 1982.

Hohmann, Hasso. "El Purgatorio Alto: Entdeckung einer vorinkaischen Stadt in Peru." Antike Welt, No 2 (2011), pp 38-46. JSTOR article. Chankillo's 13 Towers and El Purgatorio.

Hyams, Edward & Ordish, George. The Last of the Incas. Barnes & Noble , New York : 1963.

Hyslop, John. Chulpas of the Lupaca Zone of the Peruvian High Plateau. Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol 4, No 2, Summer 1977, p 149 - 170. Taylor & Francis. JSTOR article

Hyslop, John. Inka Settlement Planning. University of Texas Press. 1990.

Hyslop, John & Marilyn Bridges. Planet Peru. Kodak: 1991. An incredible book of arial photography.

Kendall, Ann. Cusichaca Trust. Ann restores Inca canals and terraces for local uses.

Lecoq, Patrice. "Can the Inca Site of Choqek'iraw be Considered an Agro-pastoral Calendar?"

Lecoq, Patrice and Thibault Saintenoy. "Choqek'iraw and it's Ceremonial Platform called Ushnu." Chap 19 in Inca Sacred Space: Landscape, Site and Symbol in the Andes. Edited by Frank Meddens, Willis, McEwan, Branch. 2014

Lee, Vincent. Forgotten Vilcabamba. Final Stronghold of the Incas. Sixpac Manco, 2000.

Lee, Vincent. "Reconstructing the Great Hall at Inkallacta." Andean Past. Volume 5, Article 7. 1998. Link

Lippi, Ronald. Guidino, Alejandra. Yumbos of northwestern Ecuador as seen through burial customs. Midwest Andean Conference 2011. ronald.lippi . gudinoa

MacQuarrie, Kim. Last Days of the Incas. Simon & Schuster, 2007.

Mann, Charles. "Mystery Towers in Peru are an Ancient Solar Calendar". Science, New Series, Vol 315, No 5816 (Mar 2, 2007) pp 1206-1207. JSTOR article. Chankillo's 13 Towers.

McEwan, Colin. "Cognising and Marking the Andean Landscape: Radial, Concentric and Hierarchical Perspectives." Chapter 3 in a unsure book.

Meyers, Albert. "Toward a Reconceptualization of Late Horizon and the Inka Period: Perspectives from Cochasqui, Ecuador, and Samaipata, Bolivia.” Variations in the Expression of Inka Power. A symposium at Dumbarton Oaks, Oct 18, 19, 1997. Edited: Richard Burger, Craig Morris, and Ramiro Matos Mendieta.

Motta, Silvia, Adriano Gaspani, Manuela Bre. "Saywite, an Inca Sacred Space: a Coded Astronomical Symbolism in the Andes." Universita di Bologna.

National Geographic Magazine. Each note is marked with which issue it references.

Nova, PBS. Ghosts of Machu Picchu.

Niles, Susan. Callachaca. Style and Status in an Inca Community. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City. 1987.

Niles, Susan. "Looking for 'Lost' Inca Palaces." Expedition Magazine. Penn Museum. Vol 30. No 3. 1988. Link.

Niles, Susan. "The Nature of Inca Royal Estates." Essay in part of Burger's Machu Picchu.

Niles, Susan. "Pumamarca: A Late Intermediate Period Site Near Ollantaytambo". Nawa Pacha. No 18. 1980, p 49-62. Taylor Francis. JSTOR journal.

Niles, Susan. The Shape of Inca History. University of Iowa Press. 1999.

Parssinen, Martti, Ari Siirainen, Antti Korpisaari. "Fortifications related to the Inca Expansion." Western Amazonia. 2003, University of Helsinki, Renvall Institute for Area and Cultural Studies. Renvall Institute Publications 14.

Peru. Insight Guides & Discovery Channel. APA Publications 2000.

Peru En Route. An interesting blog of travels around Peru. Link.

Pizarro, Pedro. Cousin of Francisco, chronicled the Spanish conquest.

Political map of Peru . A current map I got while in Peru in 2001.

Poma, Huaman. Letter to a King. Felipe Huaman Poma de Ayala. EP Dutton, NY 1978. Probably written in 1615. Tupac Inca Yupanqui was his mother's fater, Curi Ocllo Coya.

Prescott, William. History of the Conquest of Peru . Volume I. JB Lippincott Co: 1874 Philadelphia. Volume II. Dana Estest & Co: 1847 Boston. He created the first compresive history of the fall of the Incas. Available for free download at Gutenburg Project.

Protzen, Jean-Pierre. "Times go by at Tambo Colorado". Nawpa Pacha: Journal of Andean Archaeology. 2008, No 29, pp 221-24. Taylor & Francis, Ltd. Jstor Link.

Qhapaq Nan, Sistema Vial Andino. Luis Lumbreras, Myriam Tarrago, Victoria Castro. Qhapaq Nan Peru, Ministro de Cultura. Nov 2020.

Reinhard, Johan. A long time Peru explorer, namely mountaintops. His website contains all his articles and greate collection of photos. Link.

Rose, Mark. "Exploring the Inca Heartland." Archeaology, 1 Sep 1999 . link.

Rowe, John. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Cuzco. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, vol 27, no 2. Also referenced in Niles, includes dates preconquest dates for Inca rulers by Balboa.

Rowe, John, Catherine Julien. "A question of time: Juan de Betanzos and the Narrative of the Incas." Nawpa Pacha: Journal of Andean Archaeology. No 29, 2008, pp 155 - 162. Taylor & Francis, Ltd. JStor link

Ruggles, Clive. Leicester University. BBC News. Ivan Ghezzi, NIC. Chankillo's 13 Towers.

Rutas Ancestrales. Qhapaq Nan. Peru, Ministro de Cultra.

Steele, Paul. Handbook to Inca Mythology. ABC-CLIO, Inc. 2004.

Sancho, Pedro. Sancho Relacion. Francisco Pizarro's secretary. Comments used at Saihuite.

Savoy, Gene. Antisuyo, the Search for the Lost Cities of the Amazon. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1970. The man who inspired Indiana Jones. He found the Last City of the Incas and thoroughly explored the Vilcabamba.

Sillar, Bill, Emily Dean, Amelia Perez Trujillo. My State or Yours? Wari "Labor Camps" and the Inka Cult of Viracocha at Raqchi, Cuzco, Peru. Latin American Antiquity. Vol 24, No 1. Mar 2013, 21-46. Cambridge University Press. JSTOR.

Squier, E George. Peru: Incidents of Travel. 1877. His insights are included mostly in the Bingham map.

Staller, John. Lightning in Pre-Columbian and Colonial Andean Religion and Culture. Midwest Andean Conference 2011. jstaller

Stanish, Charles. Lake Titicaca: Legend, Myth and Science.

Tavera, Lizardo. Arqueologia del Peru. Link

Thompson, Donald E. "Stone Carvings from the North Highlands of Peru." American Antiquity. Vol 28, No 2, Oct 1962. pp 245 - 246. Cambridge University Press. Jstor link.

Thomson, Hugh. The White Rock, An Exploration of the Inca Heartland. New York: Overlook Press, 2003. A journal of an English explorer in Peru . He is currently finding new sites. Very exciting and inspiring

Thomson, Hugh. A Sacred Landscape: the Search for Ancient Peru. Woodstock: Overlook Press, 2007.

Urton, Gary. Inca Myths.

Von Hagen, Adriana & Morris, Craig. The Cities of the Ancient Andes . Thames and Hudson, London, 1998

Von Hagen, Victor. Guides to Cusco and Machu Picchu. 1957.

Von Hagen, Victor. Highway of the Sun. Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New York, 1955. A thorough exploration of the Inca highway system.

Von Hagen, Victor. "The Mystery of Pisac." Archaeology. Vol 5, No 1, Mar 1952, p 33-39. JSTOR article.

Von Hagen, Victor. Realm of the Incas. New American Library, New York , 1957.

Von Hagen, Victor. The Royal Road of the Incas. Gordon Cremonesi, London , 1976.

Vranich, Alexei. chapter: "Monumental Perceptions of the Tiwanaku Landscape."Politacal Landscapes of Capital Cities. editors: Jessica Joyce Christie, Jelena Bogdanovic and Eulogio Guzman. University Press of Colorado. JSTOR article.

Weiner, Charles. French explorer or the Vilcabamba. Provided illustrations of Saihuite.

White, Stuart. Preliminary Site Survey of the Punkuyoq Range, Southern Peru. Nawa Pacha: Journal of Andean Archaeology. No 22/23 (1984-1985) pp 127 - 160. link

Wright, Kenneth & Zegarra, Alfredo Valencia. Machu Picchu, a Civil Engineering Marvel. Virgina: ASCE Press 2000.

Wright, Ruth & Alfredo Valencia Zegarra. The Machu Picchu Guidebook. Johnson Printing. Boulder, CO. 2001.

Zawaski, Michael and J McKim Malville. "Archaeoastronomical Survey of Major Inca Sites in Peru." Archaeostronomy, The Journal of Astronomy in Culture. Volume XXI, 2007-2008.. University of Texas Press.

Zegarra, Alfredo Valencia. Recent Archaelogical Investigations at Machu Picchu. Essay in part of Burger's Machu Picchu.

Ziegler, Gary. Beyond Machu Picchu - Choquequirao, Lost City in the Clouds. Peruvian Times. link

Zorich, Zach. Fall of a Sacred Fortress. Archaeology, Vol 63, No 3 (May/June 2010), pp 30-35. JSTOR article. Chankillo's 13 Towers.

Zuidema, Tom. Royal Tunics: From Inca to Huari and Tiahuanaco. Their reflection of Political and Ritual Hierarchy. Midwest Andean Conference 2011.


Andy Roscoe :: andy@ :: :: ::