Tribes of Peru
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Acos – lineage that governed, built, and managed allbridges. Chaca suioioc acos inger guamnochaca – title given to a governor of 1000 bridges. Von Hagen

Alcavizas - original people of Cuzco, called forth by Viracocha. Defeated by Inca Roca at the age of 2. Steele

Allauca Huanuco - tribe in Old Huan uco, featuring the Yarovilca kings: First Yarovilca king, White Lion, Yellow Lion a Noble Primitive People, Shining White Falcon, Lion as Agile as Lightning and Noble Primitive People, Origin of Primitive People, Origin of Condor, Origin of Fire, Origin of Playful Lion, Origin of the White Conquerer. List of kings of "warlike people on p31. Poma

Amautas - 800AD, ruled highlands for 60 generations. Incas used many of the agricultural and engineering feats. Bingham

Angares - along with Huancas, Yauyos, and Chauircos tribes attacked Lima from the South under General Quizo (Manco, 1537). MacQuarrie

Antas – big eared, were re-settled to Vilcashuaman. Antis, Chunchos, Piros, and Campas tribes supported the neo-Inca state.Von Hagen

Antis - wore little clothes, light skinned, canalbalistic, fierce. Poma

Araucanians – uncivilized warriors in N Chile, fanatical about their freedom. Topa Yupanqui took their best land and stopped at the Maule R. Hyams

Aspero - Supe river mouth, began around 3000bc. Frost

Asto - A theoretical pre-Inca group in the Huancavelica. They were part of the Chanca Confederacy. Evidence is that the current people of Huancavelica speak Ayacucho Quechua and not Quechua B/I like the Wanka people. Ayacucho Quechua is spoken the departments of Ayacucho, Huancavelica and W half of Apurimac. Ayacucho Quechua and Cusco-Bolivan Quechua are part of the Chinchay Meridional language Group, QIIC. Cerron Palomino/Heffernan There are 27 Asto sites at mountain tops 11,800 - 14,400ft elevation along the Vilca and Mantaro R of Huancavelica. Some sites are dated 980 - 1200AD. Levallee and Julien / Heffernan

Atabillo - along with Tarama, Huanuco, Huayla tribes attacked Lima from the north under General Quizo (Manco, 1537). MacQuarrie

Atacameno – at Salar de Atacama, high desert with large salt lake. Speak Kunsa – quite different from Quechua and Aymara. Herds, irrigation from glaciers. Traded with the coast with goods from mountains. Von Hagen

Ayamara - general term for people from Bolivia puna. Squier found an elongated skull, photo. Traditional hat, photo.

Ayanarcas - along with the Chancas, Soras, and Yanyos fought with Huascar against Atauallpa. Hyams

Ayar - name of founding Inca ancestors. Manco Capac and family traveled to Cuzco. Many were transformed into huancas on their way to Cuzco. Wore fine clothes of wool woven with gold. Mamas wore rich cloaks with chumbis - sash and topos - large pins. Steele

Ayarmarca - With Yacanora lived in San Sebastian of Cusco valler. Bauer

Ayavari - women wear "large flat hats trimmed with beautiful upending brocade". Near Titicaca, NW. Von Hagen

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Bahia - Ecuador. Alva

Cabana - Quechua speaking tribe in Colca valley. Neighbors to Collagua. Conquered by Incas in mid 15th century. Hyslop

Calima - Columbia, famous goldsmiths. photo. Alva

Calipa. Chlipas, Celipa, or Aulapi, Ualapi. They live near the Toromonas between Madre de Dios and Beni R. Maldonado/ Parssinen

Callahuaya - tribe used as porters for short distances. Poma

Campas - Antis, Chunchos, Piros, and Campas tribes supported the neo-Inca state. Von Hagen. Jungle tribe at Espiritu Pampa. Bareheaded and barefoot, painted faces, lip ornament. Men wore long tunics - symbol of marriage. Women wore necklaces of seeds and skins of birds. See Pichanguerras. Bingham

Canas - caps, “larger and greater in width,” road woolen hats, And ponchos. Village of Tinta and Temple of Viracocha . Von Hagen.
- Viracocha came to Cacha/Raqchi and called forth the Canas. They did not recognize him and attacked. Viracocha called down fire to stop them, but then ceased and saved them.
-Conquered by the third Inca, Lloqye Yupanqui. Hyams. They were given "autonomy and prestige" for their military support. Sillar. They were a loyal people and were often used as mitimaes to styme rebels of the Collasuyu. Joined the Canchis in helping Pachacuti defeat the Chancas, though served as mercenaries. Polo de Ondegardo.

Canches
- Canchi, Canchus. “wide filets of red or black passing over forehead.” Sicvani. Von Hagen
. Canchi - women along with Pacage and Colla women were very attractive to Inca. Poma. They were a loyal people and were often used as mitimaes to styme rebels of the Collasuyu. Joined the Canas in helping Pachacuti defeat the Chancas, though served as mercenaries. Polo de Ondegardo

Cancharis - a Cancharis prisoner of Toledo's march to capture Tupac Amaru, tried to escape and warn Tupac. The prisoner was captured and hung at Ututo. Lee

Canta and Chaclla - ethnic groups in Chillon valley. In 1558 they arrived over ownership of coca fields. Valley has markers visited during Capac Cocha festival. Albornoz

Caņaris
- “crowns of thick lathes, like those used for Sieve” province in
Ecuador . Crowns of interwoven thick latches. Their hair was long and coiled around their head in a knotted crown and wore a round wooden ring. Controlled the area from Chimborazo to Loja. Large powerful tribe. Allied with many other groups including Jivaros. Excellent metalworkers of gold and copper. Had currency in salt and copper.
In 1530 they offered to help Huascar and they captured Atahuallpa. Atahualla escaped and then ordered their slaughter. He ordered the leaders to be planted like trees to see if they would give fruit. The spot was titled Collanchacra - superior field, where Atahuallpa defeated the Canaris. Betanzos. Thus they became enemies of A and later the Spanish’s most loyal allies. Von Hagen. From Ecuador, were resettled to Yucay Valley. Steele. Chachapoya - and Canari were notorious rebels and traitors. Poma. Backed Hauscar during the civil war. They were severely punished by Atahuallpa. They went on and backed the Spanish in the conquest against the incas. Chief was Chilche during conquest. Hemming

Cara – see Cayambi

Cario – Paraguay.Incas conquering Vilcabamba and Antisuyu areas forced tribes farther E into other tribal areas, all the way out to Paraguay. Juan Diaz de Solis replaced Amerigo Vespucci on his death. He sailed up the La Plata R hoping to get to the Pacific. He met the Cario tribe in 1515, who described the Incas as living where the sun set and had unlimited gold and silver. See Guarani. Von Hagen

Cavinas – wore large ear plugs, ponchos. Lived in Urcos area. Von Hagen . W of the provinces of Canchis and Canas near Ausangate. Reinhard

CayambiN Ecuador, part of the Cara people. Also called Caraques. Almost succeeded in maintaining liberty. Provided the most resistance in Inca history. Fought in open and fortresses. N tribes rebelled because cannibalism was outlawed. They rose up on a certain day and slaughtered all cucuricucs and garrisons – and ate.  Colla Topa – relative of Huayna Capac lead an elite force in first campaign, Cayambi held their ground. Second campaign lasted years and cost the Sapa Inca’s brother. H Capac was even knocked to the ground. The last time, the Incas faked a retreat, the Cayambi chased, a secret Inca rear group occupied the stronghold and trapped the Cayambi between the 2 forces. 20,000 died. Uncommon. Hyams. Lived in circular, earthwalled homes. Chiefs were buried in pits. They worshipped the sky and mtn peaks, Cayambe and Cotopaxi. Upon conquering, Huayna Capac ordered that all chiefs be beheaded at the edge of a lake – Yahuarcocha, bloody lake. Von Hagen . The leader, Pinto, was turned into a drum and sent to Cusco for use in a Sun dance. Murua, Sarmiento / Niles

Chaclla - See Canta. Chaclla also supplied mita workers to the coca fields of Chillon valley. Rostworowski/Heffernan

Chachapoya - and Canari were notorious rebels and traitors. Poma. After Manco was chased out of Vitcos, he was invited to join the Chachapoyas at Kuelap. He began the journey, but then decided on Vilcabamba instead. Alonso de Alvarado attacked. Manco sent his cousin, Cayo Topa, to have the Chachapoyas resist. The chief, Guaman, declined to revolt and welcomed Alvarado. Hemming

Chanapata - Pre-Inca and at Cuzco at Carmenca. They had styles similar to Pucara and Chiripa and also Chavin, but surprisingly not Tihuanaco. Rowe

Chancas -
Home is at Andahuaylas. Their region is between the Apurimac and Pampas rivers. Gasparini. Controlled the area of Andahuaylas to Huancavelica and Ayacucho. Steele. At Abancay and Andahuaylas. Hemming
A confederacy of semi-independant groups. Steele . Ethnic groups included Hancohuallo, Utunsulla, Uromarca, Villca. Garcilaso/Heffernan. Descended from Huari. Alva.

Believed that they descended from the puma. On feast days the chief would dance in a puma skin.
History.
1400 moved S to Abancay and Curahuasi to control the bridges. They defeated the Quechuas in the area. Cieza/Heffernan
1437 besieged
Cuzco , Inca Viracocha fled and Pachacutic raised up and defeated them. Von Hagen. They attacked Cuzco under the leadership of Hanco-Huallu with 8000 warriors. They were defeated on the Plain of Blood. They fled into the forests of Moyobamba (area of Chachapoyas) of the upper Maranon . For allowing their escape the Inca general, Capac Yupanqui was executed.
1531. Along with the Soras, Ayanarcas, and Yanyos fought with Huascar against Atauallpa. Hyams.

Cachiva
- Chanca song. Poma.

Chancay – Central coast in Chancay valley. A Von Hagen photo, pottery

Charcas - sturdy people in territory given to Almagro. Gonzalo and Hernando forced them into obedience. Maybe near Porco & Potosi. Prescott

Chauin - an Inca by privilege ayllu in Cusco. With Sutic-toco they were of higher rank than the other non-Inca ayllus. Sarmiento/Christie

Chauircos - along with Huancas, Yauyos, and Angares tribes attacked Lima from the South under General Quizo (Manco, 1537). MacQuarrie

Chavin - northern Peru. 800 - 200 BC. Frost

Chichas
- supplied incense for religion. Von Hagen. In Chincha valley. Organized by specialties. Capital – La Centinela. Had 3 great roads, mounds painted white with friezes. A Von Hagen . A war like tribe, in the Collao, near the valley of Cochabamba. Hemming
The Chicha and Chuy retreated to the natural fortress of Oroncota, it took several years for the Incas to conquer. Parssinen
1539 Mar. A
long with the Pocona and Consora tribes rise to Manco's rebellion request. Gonzalo led 20 calvary against them and captured Gen Tiso.
MacQuarrie. Their chief Torinaseo led a battle against Gonzalo Pizarro, Paullu, Onate, and Garcilaso's father. here. The spanish won and gained allies of the Chichas. Hemming

Chinchas - on coast S of Lima, grew cotton, roads with 12 ft high walls, fomidable warriors, ventured into the mountains to conquer and collect spoils. Futally resisted the Incas. von Hagen. Small kingdom in Chincha and Ica Valley. Highly organized - farmers, fisherman, and merchants. They traded along the coast, all the way to Ecuador and highlands. La Sentinela was the capital. Made textiles of bird feathers. photo Alva

Chinchay
- around lake Chinchaycocha (Junin), 2nd largest lake in S America, fought against the Incas, but became loyal vassals upon defeat. Von Hagen

Chipaya - people of the altiplano, spoke pukina (now extinct) with the Uru people. Written with four other languages above bapistry of the Andahuaylillas church. Frost

Chiponaua - Also called Chicoria. Bolivian jungle tribe. Parssinen

Chiriguana – from Paraguay, raided the Inca frontier in 1523 with the help of Spaniard, Alejo Garcia. A report of this was sent back to Huayna Capac. The Spanaird was later killed by the Chiriguana.

Chumpi-vilcas
- dancers (not from Cuntisuyu). Von Hagen

Chuncos - Antis, Chunchos, Piros, and Campas tribes supported the neo-Inca state. Von Hagen. Defeated by Inca Roca. Cannibals. Steele . Conquered by Tupac Inca in the Vilcabamba jungle. MacQuarrie. Jungle tribe famous for cannibalism. Manari indians from the Vilcabamba and beyond. Hemming

Chuquisaca – wore beautiful handwoven clothes. Von Hagen photo

Chuquimanco – on S coast in valley of Lunahuana, the Incas built an important city here, Incawasi. Incas fought for a long time. Hemming. Map.

Chuy - The Chicha and Chuy retreated to the natural fortress of Oroncota in S Bolivia, it took several years for the Incas to conquer. Parssinen

Collas – or Qollas, Collao. L Titicaca. Often grouped with their neighbors, Lupaca. Large herds of llamas and alpacas. Hilltop fortresses for refuge, buried dead in chullpas. A Von Hagen. Caps shaped like plump box of wool, Titicaca. Von Hagen. Conquered by the third Inca, Lloqye Yupanqui. Revolted with the Lupaca, Pucasa, and Omasuy when false news of the death of Topa Yupanqui reached them. Topa’s armies quickly left the jungles and climbed t0 12,000 ft and crushed the rebels. Hyams. Pachacuti used them to build Ollantaytambo. Chuchi Capa was the great chief was killed when Incas invaded their area. His sons were forced as labor to build Ollantaytambo. When the Inca withdrew from Ollantay, the son fled with his people back to their home. Along the way, they raised up neighboring tribes in revolt. Pachacuti stopped the revolt with difficult fighting and much bloodshed. Hemming. Aymara speaking tribe neighbors with Cabana tribe in Colca valley. Conquered by Incas in mid 15th century. Hyslop. One of the rebel leaders named himself "Pachacuti Inca." Julien
Tocay Capac Pinahua Capac stopped Inca advance and killed Sinchi Roca's sons, Huari Titu Inca and Tupac Amaru Inca. Cross of Carabuco, legend. St Bartholomew preached the gospel to Incas and Colla. This cross was left as evidence. Poma. Colla - women along with Pacage and Canchi women were very attractive to Inca. Poma

Collasuyu - Capac Apo Mallco, powerful lord condor, rules area. Married to Capacome Tallama. Rich in gold, silver, llamas & alpacas, potatoes. Poma

Collique - area of Chancay. Culture on central coast. Alva

Conchucos - 1538, Inca general, Illa Tupac led a revolt against in Manco's First Rebellion. They marched on Trujillo, killing any Spaniard. Illa controlled the Huanuco area. Hemming

Consora - along with the Pocona and Chicha tribes rise to Manco's rebellion request of 1539 Mar. Gonzalo led 20 calvary against them and captured Gen Tiso. MacQuarrie

Cuismancu - subjected by Incas in 1450. Mentioned by chroniclers. No evidence found of their existence. Alva

Cuntisuyu - Ruled by Capac Apo Mullo, powerful lored colored shell. Married to Mallco Huarmi Timtama. Chilli pepper and cotton. Poma

Cupisnique - pottery shows housing style. Alva

Curayaco - Lima, Early Horizon. Alva

Cuyos - Pisac is a royal estate for Pachacuti, built after conquering the Cuyos - one of the first ethnic groups conquered. MacQuarrie. The Cuyos lived in Pucara Pantilliclla, when Pachacuti conquered, he burned it. Sarmineto/Niles

Esse Ejas - Escay Oyas (Yamqui) lived on lower Madre de Dios. Escaucingas was an area near Paititi near confluence of Madre de Dios and Beni. Maldonado

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GuaraniParaguay. Incas conquering Vilcabamba and Antisuyu areas forced tribes farther E into other tribal areas, all the way out to Paraguay . Garcia Alejo, Portugese, joined the Guarani and raided several Inca outposts. Von Hagen. Tribe of E Bolivia. Fought by the Incas at about 1520s, near the time of Spanish arrival. Hemming.

Hualla - coca producing locals at Huanaypata of Cuzco. Mama Huaco led the battle to win the field. Ripped out lungs and wombs of defeated. Then they planted maize. Steele

Huayla - along with Atabillo, Huanuco, Tarama tribes attacked Lima from the north under General Quizo (Manco, 1537). MacQuarrie

Huancas – Wankas. “Field Guardians”. short ropes that hung down to chin, hair plaited. Jauja, central Peru. Von Hagen. Mantaro basin, defensive walls. A Von Hagen. People of Huancayo are called Wanka. R Roscoe. Along with Angares, Yauyos, and Chauircos tribes attacked Lima from the South under General Quizo (Manco, 1537). MacQuarrie. Huascar ruled from Xauxa among Huancas. Poma. Near Juaja. "anti-inca" tribe. Quizo Yupanqvvui, one of Manco's generals, tried to recruit this tribe to finish off the spanish in Lima. Except for Cusco and Lima, the rest of Peru was secured. Hemming

Huanuco - along with Atabillo, Tarama, Huayla tribes attacked Lima from the north under General Quizo (Manco, 1537). MacQuarrie. Tribe of Chinchaysuyu. Provided long time service to the Incas and very loyal. Poma

Huancane - tribe on north shore of L Titicaca. Hemming

Huari - see Wari.

Huaura - They provided mita workers to the Chancay valley to provide the Inca with seafood. Rostworowski/Heffernan

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Ichma – Ychma, Ichimay. Brought together Lurin and Rimac valleys. Religious based and control Pachamac adobe pyramids with ramps. 1200 – 1400. A Von Hagen

Incas - ceremonial sites typically featured carved or uncarved bedrock outcrops, canals, and fine masonry walls. Arkush

Intip churin - rulers of Peru who descended from the sun, had coat of arms and called Tocay Capac Pinahua Capac. Poma

Jama Coaque - Ecuador, 500BC. photo. Alva

Jaujas - "anti-inca" tribe. Quizo Yupanqui, one of Manco's generals, tried to recruit this tribe to finish off the spanish in Lima. Except for Cusco and Lima, the rest of Peru was secured. Hemming

Jivaros – of the upper Amazon, practiced head shrinking. Traded and supported Canari.

Killke - descended from Quotakalli, from Huari. Alva

Kunsa – language spoken by Atacamenos of the high deseret of Atacemena. Quite different from Quechua and Ayamara. Von Hagen

Lares – original inhabitants of Ollantaytambo, 1400. 1440 destroyed by raiding Incas. Von Hagen

Lucana - carry Manco from Vitcos in relays as Orgonez pillages the capital. MacQuarrie. Tribe used as for long distances. Human Poma's tribe. "the feet of the Incas" Poma. The Viceroy Francisco de Toledo climbed the usnu at Vilcashuaman and invited the chief Naccha Huarcaya to join him. Poma

Lupaca – Lupaqa. L Titicaca. Large herds of llamas and alpacas. Hilltop fortresses for refuge, buried dead in chullpas. A Von Hagen. The Lupaca stone workers primarily built Cusco and most of the country's stone buildings. Spoke Aymara. Gasparini. Church and Lupaca relationship studied by Meiklejohn 1988, Frye 1997. Bauer
The Lupaca consolidated power with the approach of Inca forces. Bauer
Revolted with the Collas, Pucasa, and Omasuy when false news of the death of Topa Yupanqui reached them. Topa’s armies quickly left the jungles and climbed t0 12,000 ft and crushed the rebels. Hyams
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Or maybe not, the Lupacas were favored for their loyalty to Topa Inca and Huayna Capac. Cobo/Arkush
Their architecture began favoring Inca styles - rectangular and cut stone, but varied because of lack Inca supervision, noteably Chucuito, chulpas, and carved rock sites in the area. Hyslop/Arkush
1539 Mar. The Lupacas rise up at Manco's rebellion request. Hernando and Gonzalo and Paullu Inca lead a force. They crush the Lupacas and kill the chief. MacQuarrie. See Desaguadero R near L Titicaca. Quintiraura was their chief during the second rebellion. He was captured and his town burned. Hemming

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Machiguenga - live in the area of Vilcabamba.

Manosuyus - conquered by Tupac Inca in the Vilcabamba jungle. MacQuarrie

Mañaries - native group of Vilcabamba jungle. Bingham. Jungle tribe, east of the Pilcosuni. Titu had great respect among them. Hemming

Manupampas lived E of Manu R. They blacken their mouth and teeth. Sarmiento / Parssinen

Momoris - native group. Bingham

Moche – portrait vessel. photo. Alva

Morochucos - exceptional horsemen from the Vilcashuaman area. Said to be descended directly from the conquistadors. They show off their skills in Ayacucho during holy week. Hemming

Moyos - chief was Taraque, with the Chichas he fought Gonzalo during the second rebellion. At his defeat, he allied with the spanish. Hemming

Omapacha - tribe in Lucanas. Poma

Omasuyu – Aymaran. Revolted with the Collas, Lupaca, and Pucasa when false news of the death of Topa Yupanqui reached them. Topa’s armies quickly left the jungles and climbed t0 12,000 ft and crushed the rebels. Hyams

Opataris - conquered by Tupac Inca in the Vilcabamba jungle. MacQuarrie. Jungle tribe east of Vilcabamba, across the Urubamba and between the Manari and Cuzco. Hemming. Opatari and Manari are found along upper Madred de Dios or Amaru-mayu. Parssinen

Oro - Uru. An Inca by privilege ayllu in Cusco. With Sanoc ayllu they were of lower rank than the other non-Inca ayllus. Sarmiento/Christie. This ayllu name maybe a generic term for low ranking. An ayllu at L Titicaca was called Uru, Aymara for low ranking. Zuidema/Christie

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Pacajes - women along with Canchi and Colla women were very attractive to Inca. Poma

Palta – wore their hair long, the Peruvian word for avocado, which grew to the size of melons here. They elongated their children’s skulls. Von Hagen

Pasto – trive in extreme N. Rebelled against Huayna Capac strongly, but he put it down with ferocity. Hyams

Picunches – north people.  Of chile, Coquimbo, Choapa R. Gonzalo Calvo was ordered to have his ears cut off by Pizzaro. He desereted and traveled alone 2000mi to Chile and set up life among the Picunches in valley of Aconcagua. Almagro ran into him during march to Chile.

Pichanguerras - sub-tribe of Campa. Bingham

Pilcosuni - populated Vilcabamba city. MacQuarrie. Pilcomu,Pilioconi, Pellcosuni, Pillco suni, Pilcosones. Jungle tribe east of Jauja and bordered Vilcabamba. Titu Cusi had very little control over them. Hemming

Piros - Antis, Chunchos, Piros, and Campas tribes supported the neo-Inca state. Von Hagen

Pocona - along with the Consora and Chicha tribes rise to Manco's rebellion request of 1539 Mar. Gonzalo led 20 calvary against them and captured Gen Tiso. MacQuarrie

Pullacayra - Polla Caira. Ethnic group living along the N side of the Limatambo valley. They are listed as living in Pampaconga. In 1579, the Colorado R was called Rio de Pulla Cayra. Heffernan

Pomacanche - tribe living in Collasuyu, had a hill-top shrine at Canchi Circa. Poma

Pucasa – Aymaran. Revolted with the Collas, Lupaca, and Omasuy when false news of the death of Topa Yupanqui reached them. Topa’s armies quickly left the jungles and climbed t0 12,000 ft and crushed the rebels. Hyams

Pukara - Began around 0 AD and lasted about 200yrs. Lanning

Puruha – Ecuador. Capital at Riobamba (Lirepampa). Densely populated, wore sleeveless woolen ponchos, wore their hair long, piled up in a circle around the head, spoke Quechua and their own language. Von Hagen

Purumacha – S of Maule R in Chile. Fierce, stopped Inca advancement. Von Hagen

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QaraQara - in Boliva. Urton

Q’eros - currently live in the remote mountain areas east of Cusco. Claim to be descendants of “refugee Inca nobility.” Frost

Quichas - brown skin, straight black hair - seldom graying or balding, often long and braided by men in certain areas. Well preserved teeth. Broad, short faces - often pock marked, no freckles. Fit and very strong shoulders, back and calves. Weak fore arms shown through 'fishy' handshakes. Similar to Labrados Eskimos. Bingham

Qolla – see Collas.

Quotakalli - ethnic group in N part of Cuzco valley, Huari influenced. See Killke. Alva

Quimbaya - finest Colombian goldsmiths. photo. Alva

Runcanas
- sturdy people who lived W of Cuzco. They carried the Inca’s litter, wore blue. Changed in relays of 8. Lived in the area W of Vilcashuaman. Von Hagen . Near Ayacucho. Hemming

Sacharuna - conquered by Tupac Inca in the Vilcabamba jungle. MacQuarrie

Sanoc - Sanuq. an Inca by privilege ayllu in Cusco. With Oro ayllu they were of lower rank than the other non-Inca ayllus. Sarmiento/Christie. This ayllu lived in San Sebastian. Urton/Christie

Sapacaties - native group. Bingham

Sauseray - led by a strong chief Copalimayta, he was defeated and fled. Manco Capc and Mama Huaco settled at Cuzco and took control of fields, houses, and people.

Sicuani - "woolen wimples which encase the head ununlike and fell across the shoulders." Von Hagen

Soras – Lived in the area W of Vilcashuaman. Von Hagen. In Chinchasuyu. Niles. Sites include: Aukimarka and Pukya at 13,000ft elevation. Aukimarka has 1000 circular buildings. Pukya has 30 round buildings.
When Pachacuti conquered them, he forced them to wear "long red tunic with tassels" fringes. Niles. Along with the Chancas, Ayanarcas, and Yanyos fought with Huascar against Atauallpa. Hyams

Pottery - feaures: "smudged yellow brown." Jar necks feature incised faces with prominate lips or chins.

Sutic-toco - an Inca by privilege ayllu in Cusco. With Chauin ayllu they were of higher rank than the other non-Inca ayllus. Sarmiento/Christie

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Tairona - Columbia, goldsmiths. photo. Alva

Tampu - Tambo. One of 4 original tribes that founded Cuzco from the Ayar brothers. Hemming. Also at Ollantaytambo. Pachaucti demanded their alligence. They refused. Pachacuti brought in a large army, destroyed the town and took it for his own. Hemming. Apu Tampu was a pre-Inca ruler. Tampu Apu was one of the clans of Cuzco. Tambo Machay may have been "cave of the Tampus." Tampu-tocco was a cave of origin for the Incas. Hemming Ranney

Tanquiha – local tribe of Vilcashuaman. Von Hagen

Tarama - along with Atabillo, Huanuco, Huayla tribes attacked Lima from the north under General Quizo (Manco, 1537). MacQuarrie

Tiwanaku - Lake Titicaca. 600 - 1000 AD. Frost. Used an "open plan," the public was invited in to celebrate rituals. Architecture styles included sunken courts, monoliths, stelae, mounds/platforms. Arriaga/Arkush. Monoliths and stelae continued to be venerated into the colonial period. Gavilan/Arkush

Toromonas - They live near the Calipa between Madre de Dios and Beni R. Maldonado/ Parssinen

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Uru - people of the altiplano, spoke pukina (now extinct) with the Chipaya people. Written with four other languages above bapistry of the Andahuaylillas church. Frost

Waca Prieta - Chicama river mouth, began around 300bc. Frost

Wanka – see Huanca

Wari - ancestors were 8 bearded giants. Steele. Based near Ayacucho. Styles include: restricting movement and public participation in rituals via high perimeter walls. The Wari also focused on pre-existing shrines and sacred landscapes. It had limited statuary. Sillar. One of the earliest cultures to use terraces. Wright/Gullberg

Yacanora - With Ayarmarca lived in San Sebastian of Cusco valler. Bauer

Yachas - people of Huanuco, before the Incas conquered & resettled. Von Hagen

Yanasimies blacken their mouth and teeth. They leave at the headwater of the Guariguaga R (De Las Piedras). Maldonado

Yanyos - along with the Chancas, Ayanarcas, and Soras fought with Huascar against Atauallpa. Hyams

Yarivilca - pre-inca. Near Huanuco or the upper Maranon. Most hilltops are "crowned by the curious ruined towers." "skycrappers." Hemming

Yarovilca kings - people of Old Huanunco, see Allauca Huanuco.

Yauyos - along with Huancas, Angares, and Chauircos tribes attacked Lima from the South under General Quizo (Manco, 1537). MacQuarrie. "anti-inca" tribe. Quizo Yupanqui, one of Manco's generals, tried to recruit this tribe to finish off the spanish in Lima. Except for Cusco and Lima, the rest of Peru was secured. Hemming

Ychma – see Ichma

Yscayssingas - common name given to remote legendary people. Rowe/Parssinen

Yumbos - In NW Ecuador, Palmitopampa - 300yrs pre-inca. Occupied by Incans. Many burial sites found. They were big traders. Terraces are pre-inca, 1050. Lippi

Yuncas
- “muffled like gypsies” on the coast. Von Hagen

Yungas - tribe famous for their beauty. Used by Titu Cusi to temp Frs Marcos and Diego. Bingham

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Bibliography
More information on the bibliography is available on the previous page.

Prescott, William. The History of the Conquest of Peru. He created the first compresive history of the fall of the Incas.

Von Hagen, Victor. Highway of the Sun. Duell, Sloan and Pierce, NewYork: 1955.

Von Hagen, Victor. Realm of the Incas. New American Library, New York: 1957.